VMCE Flashcards – Chapter 4: Protect
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[i] Chapter 5: Protect
[q] Which methods does Veeam provide for regular backups?
[a] -Reverse incremental backup
– Incremental backup:
* Forward incremental backup
* Forever forward incremental backup
[q] What happens if you switch from the reverse incremental method to the forward incremental method?
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication will create a set of incremental backups next to the reverse incremental chain. The full backup in the reverse incremental chain will be used as a starting point for produced increments.
[q] What happens if you switch from the forward incremental method to the reverse incremental method
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication will first create a full backup next to the incremental backup chain. At subsequent job cycles, Veeam Backup & Replication will transform this full backup and add reverse incremental backups to the chain.
[q] Can you explain the difference between an Active Full and Synthetic backup?
[a] An Active Full backup will read the block from Production storage while a Synthetic will “synthesizes” a full backup from data you already have on the backup repository.
[q] Which backup method uses sequential writes for it’s incremental backups?
[a] (Forever) Forward Incremental Backup
[q] Which backup method uses random read and writes for it’s backup?
[a] Reversed Incremental Backup
[q] Can you name 2 advantages of a synthetic full backup?
[a] – Does not use network resources: It is created from backup files you already have on disk.
– Imposes less load on the production environment: It is created right on the backup repository.
[q] When using the Retention Policy for Deleted VM’s, as soon as the specified retention period is over, data from the deleted VM will be removed from
backup files on the backup repository. How does Veeam ‘free up’ the space on the repository?
[a] It marks the space as available to be overwritten, and this space is overwritten during subsequent job sessions or the backup file compact operation.
[q] Can the Retention policy for deleted VMs be applied to all backup methods?
[a] No, it is only applied to reverse incremental backup chains, forever forward incremental backup chains and forward incremental backup chains for which synthetic full backups with subsequent transform is enabled.
[q] For which operations does Veeam Backup & Replication use CBT?
[a] – Backup
– Entire VM restore
[q] Which mechanisms does Veeam use to keep track of Hyper-V changed blocks?
[a] For VMs on Microsoft Hyper-V Servers 2012 R2 and earlier: Veeam proprietary changed block tracking mechanism (CBT).
For VMs on Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016: Resilient Changed Tracking (RCT)
*** Hyper-V 2016: VM version must be =>9 and Cluster level must be =>8 – Otherwise RCT/CBT is unavailable! ***
[q] The Veeam CBT driver keeps track of changed data blocks in virtual disks. Information about changed data blocks is registered in special CTP files. What is the location of these CPT files?
[a] CTP files are stored in the C:\ProgramData\Veeam\CtpStore folder on standalone Microsoft Hyper-V hosts or on every node of the Microsoft Hyper-V cluster.
[q] To guarantee persistence of CBT data, Microsoft RCT maintains 3 bitmaps with CBT data; In memory, an RCT and an MRT file. Do you know how many are created and where how they are stored?
[a] RCT and MRT files are created for every VM disk and stored at the VM disk level.
[q] Which Encruption Algorithm does Veeam use?
[a] 256-bit AES
[q] How does Veeam Backup & Replication determine which Blocks need to be excluded with the use of Bitlooker?
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication accesses the MFT file on the VM guest OS to identify deleted file blocks, and zeros out these blocks.
[q] Which types of Encryption does Veeam Backup & Replication use?
[a] – At source: Reads the data and encrypts the files that are sent to the repository, which writes the files as it receives them (already encrypted)
– In flight: Source Data Mover Service encrypts before sending, target decrypts when receiving
– At rest: Hardware level: Library- and driver-managed encryption mechanisms provided by the tape vendor (preferred and tried first for tape media). This will cause
double encrypted backups, if source backup is already encrypted Software level: The encryption mechanism provided by Veeam.
[q] A backup van be made either Crash-consistent or Transaction consistent. Do you know what the difference is between them?
[a] When you perform backups of a running VM, it is necessary to quiesce (or ‘freeze’) it to bring the file system and application data to a consistent state suitable for backup. Backing up a VM without quiescence produces a crash-consistent backup. Restoring a crash-consistent backup is essentially equivalent to rebooting a server after a hard reset. In contrast to it, restoring transactionally consistent backups (produced with VM data quiesced) ensures the safety of data for applications running on VMs.
[q] To create transactionally consistent backup images of VMware vSphere VMs, Veeam Backup & Replication provides which two options?
[a] Application-aware processing (utilizing Windows VSS framework) and VMware Tools quiescence, leveraging ESXi snapshot capabilities.
[q] Veeam has a developed a technology called the Snapshot Hunter (available for VMware vSphere). Can you explain which problem the Snapshot Hunter addresses?
[a] Under some circumstances, VMware vSphere can report a successful removal of a snapshot but the snapshot actually remains on the
datastore. The snapshot hunter is used to detect and remove those orphaned snapshots that may remain after backup or replication job sessions.
[q] For which type of jobs, can the Veeam snapshot hunter detect orphaned snapshot?
[a] The Snapshot Hunter runs in jobs that use VMware VM snapshots:
– Backup jobs: regular backup, backup from storage snapshot, vCloud Director backup
– Replication jobs (the source VM snapshot): regular replication, replication from storage snapshot
[q] Can you explain what a Guest Interaction Proxy does?
[a] The guest interaction proxy communicates with
– Application-aware processing
– Guest file system indexing
– Transaction logs processing
[q] What are the requirements of a Guest Interaction Proxy?
[a] – It must be a Microsoft Windows machine (physical or virtual).
-You must add it to the Veeam Backup & Replication console as a managed server.
– It must have a LAN or VIX connection to the VM that will be backed up or replicated
Note: The GIP only works for windows VMs, for other OS’es the VBR will deploy the runtime process.
[q] what are the priority rules which Veeam Backup & Replication uses to select the guest interaction proxy?
[a] 1. A machine in the same network as the protected VM that does not perform the backup server
2. A machine in the same network as the protected VM that performs the backup server role.
3. A machine in another network that does not perform the backup server role.
4. A machine in another network that performs the backup server role
NOTE: If Veeam Backup & Replication finds several available machines of equal priority, it selects the less
loaded machine. The load is defined by the number of tasks that the machine already performs
[q] How does the Guest Interaction Proxy upload Pre-Freeze and Post-Thaw scripts to a VM?
[a] Scripts for Microsoft Windows VMs are uploaded over the networkor VIX, if Veeam Backup & Replication fails to connect to the VM guest OS over the network. Scripts
for Linux VMs are uploaded over SSH.
[q] Veeam Backup and Replication can backup and truncate SQL and Oracle Database log files. However, not all database log files can be backed-up. What are requirements for a transaction log backup to succeed?
[a] To be able to back up the SQL transaction logs make sure that Full or Bulk-logged recovery model is enabled for that server and no other backup tool truncates the SQL server logs files. To be able to back up the Oracle transaction logs make sure that ARCHIVELOG mode is enabled for the Oracle database.
[q] If you have scheduling set for a backupjob, can you still start it manually?
[a] Yes, a scheduled job can be started manually at any moment.
[q] When will Veeam retry a backup job?
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication retries a job only if the previous job session has failed and one or several VMs in the job have not been processed. Veeam Backup & Replication does not perform a retry if a job session has finished with the Success or Warning status. During the job retry, Veeam Backup & Replication processes only those VMs that have failed.
Retries will -not- happen for jobs started manually!
[q] What type of backup will be made with VeeamZIP?
[a] VeeamZIP will always make a Full Backup (.vbk) which also acts as an independent restore point.
[q] when making a full backup of 1 or more VMs using VeeamZIP, there are a couple advanced options. Do you know which advanced options there are?
[a] Data encryption, Retention settings, Data compression and VM guest OS quiescence.
[q] Do you know what a “Quick Backup” is?
[a] Quick Backup is an incremental backup task – and similarly, Quick Backup can only be run for VMs that have been successfully backed up at least once and has a full restore point.
[q] How is the retention policy applied to a Quick Backup restore point?
[a] When you perform Quick Backup, Veeam Backup & Replication creates a partial incremental restore point, which contains data only for a specific VM. A partial restore point is not regarded as a fullfledged restore point in the backup chain. From the retention policy perspective, a partial restore point is grouped with a regular restore point following it. When Veeam Backup & Replication needs to delete a partial restore point by retention, it waits for the next regular restore point to expire, and deletes two restore points at once
[q] What is the 3-2-1 Rule?
[a] 3: You must have three copies of a data in different locations.
2: You must use two different types of media to store copies of a backup file, for example, disk storage and tape.
1: You must keep at least one copy of a backup file offsite, for example, in the cloud or in the remote site
PS: If you didn’t know this rule; be ashamed, be very ashamed!
[q] What backup type of backup method (chain) is used with a Backup copy Job?
[a] A backup copy job always uses the forever forward backup method.
[q] Are backup copy jobs processed parallel or sequentially?
[a] This is a nasty one, since normally VMs in a backup copy job are processed parallel. However, if you use a WAN Accelerator VMs will be processed sequentially
[q] If you plan to copy VM restore points over the WAN and slow connections, you can also use backup mapping. There is 1 simple requirement before you can use this option, do you know which one?
[a] Backup mapping can only be used if you already have a full backup file for the VM you plan to process with the backup copy job on the target backup repository
[q] What happens if you change the block size of a backup file, which is already i na backup copy job?
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication will detect such restore points and display the “Restore point is located in backup file with different block size” message and as a result will not copy the restore point.
[q] what is the maximum amount of restore points you can create with a backup copy job, using the simple retention policy?
[a] The maximum amount of restore points is 999
[q]The GFS, or Grandfather-Father-Son retention policy is a tiered retention policy scheme. It uses a number of cycles to maintain backups at different tiers. Do you know which Tiers there are?
[a] – Regular backup cycle performed according to the specified synchronization interval
– Weekly backup cycle
– Monthly backup cycle
– Quarterly backup cycle
– Yearly backup cycle
[q] How does Veeam Backup & Replication create a GFS tiered backup?
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication re-uses a full backup created in the regular backup cycle and propagates it to the required tier. After the retention is met
and the .vbk “passes” the scheduled date, the full backup created in a backup copy job for each GFS retention point will be deleted.
[q] How does Veeam Backup & Replication removes data for deleted VMs?
[a] Veeam does not free up space in the backup repository. It marks the space as available to be overwritten, and this space is overwritten during subsequent job sessions or the backup file compact operation.
[q] How does the Defragment and compact full backup file option work?
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication creates a new empty .VBK file and copies to it all data blocks from the full backup file. As a result, the full backup file gets defragmented, its size reduces and the speed of reading and writing from and to the file increases.
[q] When you deploy a WAN accelerator, Veeam Backup & Replication creates the VeeamWAN folder. What do the Source and Target WAN Accelerator folders contain?
[a] Source WAN Accelerator: Files with digests required for global deduplication
Target WAN Accelerator: Global cache data
[q] When using Veeam replication, you can select 2 different patha for VM data transfer. Which ones?
[a] -Direct: To transport data directly from the backup proxy to the target host.
– Through built-in WAN accelerators: To transport VM data via WAN accelerators
[q] Where does a Veeam replica store it’s metadata?
[a] On the selected Backup Repository.
[q] To reduce the amount of traffic sent over the network during replication Veeam can leverage various options. Do you know which option there are available?
[a] – WAN Accelerator
– Remote Replica from backup
– Replica Seeding
– Replica Mapping
[q] If a local network connection drops for a short period of time during the replication process. How does Veeam’s Resume on disconnect feature help to overcome this problem?
[a] Veeam Backup & Replication does not need to create a new restore point upon resume: VM data is written to the same restore point that was created for the current replication session.
[q] If a WAN connection drops for a short period of time during the replication process. How does Veeam’s Resume on WAN disconnect feature help to overcome this problem?
[a] – After a WAN connection is resumed, Veeam Backup & Replication starts a new data transfer cycle: data transported with every new cycle is written to a new working snapshot on a VM replica.
– In order to avoid keeping long snapshot chains, Veeam Backup & Replication merges earlier snapshots and maintains only two working snapshots for a VM replica.
– Once all of the VM data is transferred to the target host, the two working snapshots are also merged to create one fully functional VM restore point
[q] For which backup and restore processes does Veeam offer Resume on disconnect?
[a] Resume on network disconnect is offered for the replication, backup, backup copy, full VM restore processes and all Cloud Connect-related activities. It is not available for tape operations.
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